The noisy sounds of snoring occur when there is an obstruction to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth and nose. SNORING: NOT FUNNY, NOT HOPELESS
Forty-five percent of normal adults snore at least occasionally, and 25 percent are habitual snorers. Problem snoring is more frequent in males and overweight persons, and it usually grows worse with age.
More than 300 devices are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office as cures for snoring. Some are variations on the old idea of sewing a sock that holds a tennis ball on the pajama back to force the snorer to sleep on his side. (Snoring is often worse when the person sleeps on his back.) Some devices reposition the lower jaw forward; some open nasal passages; a few others have been designed to condition a person not to snore by producing unpleasant stimuli when snoring occurs. But if you snore, the truth is that it is not under your control whatsoever; if anti-snoring devices work, that is probably because they keep you awake.
WHAT CAUSES SNORING?
The noisy sounds of snoring occur when there is an obstruction to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the mouth and nose. This area is the collapsible part of the airway where the tongue and upper throat meet the soft palate and uvula. When these structures strike each other and vibrate during breathing, that is snoring.
PERSONS WHO SNORE MAY SUFFER FROM:
Poor muscle tone in the tongue and throat. When muscles are too relaxed, either from alcohol or from drugs that cause sleepiness, the tongue falls backwards into the airway or the throat muscles draw in from the sides into the airway. This can also happen in deep sleep.
Excessive bulkiness of throat tissue. Children with large tonsils and adenoids, often snore. Overweight persons have bulky neck tissue, too. Cysts or tumors could also cause bulk, but they are rare.
Long soft palate and/or uvula. A long palate narrows the opening from the nose into the throat. As it dangles, it acts as a noisy flutter valve during relaxed breathing. A long uvula makes matters even worse.
Obstructed nasal airways. A stuffy or blocked nose requires extra effort to pull air through it. This creates an exaggerated vacuum in the throat, pulls together the floppy tissues of the throat, and snoring results. So, snoring often occurs only during the hay fever season or with a cold or sinus infection.
Also, deformities of the nose or nasal septum, such as a deviated septum (a deformity of the wall that separates one nostril from the other), can cause such an obstruction.
IS SNORING SERIOUS?
It can be, when it makes the snorer an object of ridicule and causes others sleepless nights and resentfulness.
It disturbs the sleeping pattern and deprives the snorer of appropriate rest. When snoring is severe (see below), it can cause serious long-term health problems.
OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA
When loud snoring is interrupted by frequent episodes of totally obstructed breathing, it is known as obstructive sleep apnea. Serious episodes last more than 10 seconds each and occur more than seven times per hour. Apnea patients may experience 30 to 300 such events per night. These episodes can reduce blood oxygen levels, causing the heart to pump harder.
The immediate effect of sleep apnea is that the snorer is forced to sleep lightly and keep his muscles tense in order to keep airflow to the lungs. Because the snorer does not get a good rest, he may be sleepy during the day, which impairs job performance and makes him a hazardous driver or equipment operator. After many years with the disorder, high blood pressure and heart enlargement may occur.
DIAGNOSIS, PROGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT
Can Heavy Snoring Be Cured?
Heavy snorers, those who snore in any position or are disruptive to the family, should seek medical advice to ensure that sleep apnea is not a problem. An otolaryngologist will provide a thorough examination of the nose, mouth, throat, palate, and neck. A sleep study in a laboratory environment may be necessary to determine how serious the snoring is and what effect(s) it has on the snorer’s health.
Treatment depends on the diagnosis. An examination will reveal if the snoring is caused by nasal allergy, infection, deformity, or tonsils and adenoids. Snoring/sleep apnea may respond best to surgery on the throat and palate that tightens flabby tissues and expands air passages, an operation known as uvulo-palatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). If surgery is too risky or unwanted, the patient may sleep every night with a nasal mask that delivers air pressure into the throat (CPAP).
A chronically snoring child should be examined for problems with his or her tonsils and adenoids. A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy may be required to return the child to full health.
SELF-HELP FOR THE LIGHT SNORER
Adults who suffer from mild or occasional snoring should try the following self-help remedies:
- Adopt a healthy and athletic lifestyle to develop good muscle tone and to lose weight.
- Avoid tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and antihistamines before bedtime.
- Avoid alcohol for at least 4 hours and heavy meals or snacks for 3 hours before retiring.
- Establish regular sleeping patterns.
- Sleep on your side rather than your back.
- Tilt the head of your bed upwards 4 inches.
- Remember, snoring means obstructed breathing, and obstruction can be serious. It’s not funny and not hopeless.
®American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Inc.